Principles of Networking


  • All data transfer requires some connection between parties
  • People can access networks through a remote connection
    • This requires some connection though either the internet or a modem
  • People can also access networks locally with a direct connection
    • This means however that all connections are routed through the local network

Communication Channels


Telephone Lines
  • Traditional method
  • Allow communication through modems over the telephone system

Coaxial Cable
  • Allows modest transfer rates

Twisted Pair
  • Very common in LANs
  • Slightly more expensive than Coaxial Cable, but faster
  • Consists of at least two wires twisted around each other to cancel out electromagnetic interference for better connections

Fiber-optic
  • Uses single glass tubes to transmit data
  • Extremely fast, very secure
  • Very expensive
  • Lightweight

Microwave
  • Uses microwaves to send and receive data streams
  • Speeds of over 2Mbps

Satellite
  • Orbit earth
  • Used to relay radio signals

Communication Features of Networking


Ethernet
  • Used to control communication between servers and clients
  • Can operate with 10Mbps, 100Mbps and 1000Mbps
  • Mostly implemented through a star topology
  • Most common networking standard
  • Ethernet cabling is usually used to connect nodes to to the main network. At How Stuff Works

ISDN
  • ISDN stands for Integrated Services Digital Network
  • It allows a minimum of at least 2 simultaneous connections
  • It is capable of most of people's complete communications needs (other than fast internet and television)

ADSL
  • ADSL stands for Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
  • Is very fast and allows over 9Mbps transfer rate
  • Very cost effective

Fibre Optic
  • Uses very small glass tubes to transmit data using light
  • Fastest form of communication
  • Are used to provide a strong connection in LANs
  • Used mostly in industry because of their high cost

Wireless
  • Don't require cables
  • Use radio waves to transmit data
  • Have recently increased in speed very much

Public & private Telephone lines
  • Usually used by private home uses to connect to the internet (not common since the early 2000s)
  • Public lines allow communication via a public phone network
  • Private lines are secure and only allow certain users

Images

Coaxial_cable_cut.jpg
A Coaxial Cable (cut)

ethernet_connector.jpg
A Ethernet connector

Twisted_pair_cable.jpg
A Twisted Pair (cut)

FIiber_optic.jpg
A Fiber Optic Cable



Created By: Daniel Gillo
Last modified: 17th May 2012

Sources